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UHD: Beyond the Hype

January 5th, 2015 | No Comments | Posted in Download, Schubin Cafe, Today's Special

Recorded November 12, 2014, NAB’s CCW+SATCON, Javits Convention Center, New York.

With CES 2015 beginning tomorrow, Mark Schubin asks: What do viewers appreciate most about UHD? Higher resolution, frame rate, dynamic range? Wider color gamut? More immersive sound? What do those mean for production, post, and distribution? Can more become less? Follow the beyond-HD journey from scene to seen.

Direct Link (66 MB / 1:02:20 TRT): UHD: Beyond the Hype


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Everything Else

December 3rd, 2014 | No Comments | Posted in Schubin Cafe

IBCVideotape is dying. Whether it will be higher in spatial resolution, frame rate, dynamic range, color gamut, and/or sound immersion; whether it will be delivered to cinema screens, TV sets, smartphones, or virtual-image eye wear; whether it arrives via terrestrial broadcast, satellite, cable, fiber, WiFi, 4G, or something else; the moving-image media of the future will be file based. But Hitachi announced at the International Broadcasting Convention in Amsterdam (IBC) in September that Gearhouse Broadcast was buying 50 of its new SDK-UHD4000 cameras.

Does the one statement have anything to do with the other? Perhaps it does. The moving-image media of the future will be file based except for everything else.

zoopraxiscope_diskIt might be best to start at the beginning. In 1879, the public became aware of two inventions. One, called the zoopraxiscope, created by Eadweard Muybridge, showed projected photographic motion pictures. The other, called an electric telescope, created by Denis Redmond, showed live motion pictures.

Zoopraxiscope_16485d by trialsanderrorsNeither was particularly good. Muybridge’s zoopraxiscope could show only a 12- or 13-frame sequence over and over. Redmond’s electric telescope could show only “built-up images of very simple luminous objects.” But, for more than three-quarters of a century, they established the basic criteria of their respective media categories: movies were recorded photographically; video was live.

1879 Redmond

baird playbackIt’s not that there weren’t crossover 1936 intermediate filmattempts. John Logie Baird came up with a mechanism for recording television signals in the 1920s. One of the camera systems for the live television coverage of the 1936 Olympic Games, built into a truck, used a movie camera, immediately developed its film, and shoved it into a video scanner, all in one continuous stream. But, in general, movies were photographic and video was live.

When Albert Abramson published “A Short History of Television Recording” in the Journal of the SMPTE in February 1955, the bulk of what he described was, in essence, movie cameras shooting video screens. He did describe systems that could magnetically record video signals directly, but none had yet become a product.

1956-4-22 NYT Gould videotapeThat changed the following year, when Ampex brought the first commercial videotape recorder to market. New York Times TV critic Jack Gould immediately thought of home video. “Why not pick up the new full-length motion picture at the corner drugstore and then run it through one’s home TV receiver?” But he also saw applications on the production side. “A director could shoot a scene, see what he’s got and then reshoot then and there.” “New scenes could be pieced in at the last moment.”

1965 Harlow ElectronovisionEven in his 1955 SMPTE paper, Abramson had a section devoted to “The Electronic Motion Picture,” describing the technology developed by High Definition Films Ltd. In 1965, in a race to beat a traditional, film-shot movie about actress Jean Harlow to theaters, a version was shot in eight days using a process called Electronovision. It won but didn’t necessarily set any precedents. Reviewing the movie in The New York Times on May 15, Howard Thompson wrote,”The Electronovision rush job on Miss Harlow’s life and career is also a dimly-lit business technically. Maybe it’s just as well. This much is for sure: Whatever the second ‘Harlow’ picture looks and sounds like, it can’t be much worse than the first.”

Today, of course, it’s commonplace to shoot both movies and TV shows electronically, recording the results in those files. A few movies are still shot on film, however, and a lot of television isn’t recorded in files, either; it’s live.

Super-Bowl-2014-Seahawks-vs-BroncosAs this is being written, the most-watched TV show in the U.S. was the 2014 Super Bowl; next year, it will probably be the 2015 Super Bowl. In other countries, the most-watched shows are often their versions of live football.

The Metropolitan Opera: Live  in HD exit lightingIt’s not just sports — almost all sports — that are seen live. So are concerts and awards shows. And, of late, there is even quite a bit of live programming being seen in movie theaters — on all seven continents (including Antarctica) — ranging from ballet, opera, and theater to museum-exhibition openings. In the UK, alone, box-office revenues for so-called event cinema doubled from 2012 to 2013 and are already much higher in 2014.

2014 Peter PanFiles need to be closed before they can be moved, and live shows need to be transmitted live, so live shows are not file-based. They can be streamed, but, for the 2014 Super Bowl, the audience that viewed any portion via live stream was about one-half of one percent of the live broadcast-television audience (and the streaming audience watched for only a fraction of the time the broadcast viewers watched, too). NBC’s live broadcast of The Sound of Music last year didn’t achieve Super Bowl-like ratings, but it did so well that the network is following up with a live Peter Pan this year. New conferences this fall, such as LiveTV:LA, were devoted to nothing but live TV.

B4 mountWhat about Hitachi’s camera? Broadcast HD cameras typically use 2/3-inch-format image sensors, three of them attached to a color-separation prism. The optics of the lens mount for those cameras, called B4, are very well defined in standard BTA S-1005-A. It even specifies the different depths at which the three color images are to land, with the blue five microns behind the green and the red ten microns behind.

Most cameras said to be of “4K” resolution (twice the detail both horizontally and vertically of 1080-line HD) use a single image sensor, often of the Super 35 mm image format, with a patterned color filter atop the sensor. The typical lens mount is the PL format. That’s fine for single-camera shooting; there are many fine PL-mount lenses. But for sports, concerts, awards shows, and even ballet, opera, and theater, something else is required.

FernsehkanonenThe intermediate-film-based live camera system at the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games was the size of a truck.  Other, electronic video cameras were each called, in German, Fernsehkanone, literally television cannon. It’s not that they fired projectiles; it’s that they were the size and shape of cannons. The reason was the lenses required to get close-ups of the action from a distance far enough so as not to interfere with it. And what was true in the Olympic stadium in 1936 remains true in stadiums, arenas, and auditoriums today. Live, multi-camera shows, whether football or opera, are typically shot with long-range zoom lenses, perhaps 100:1.

Unfortunately, the longest-range zoom lens for a PL mount is a 20:1, and it was just introduced by Canon this fall; previously, 12:1 was the limit. And that’s why Gearhouse Broadcast placed the large order for Hitachi SDK-UHD4000 cameras.

Hitachi Gearhouse

Those cameras use 2/3-inch-format image sensors and take B4-mount lenses, but they have a fourth image sensor, a second green one, offset by one-half pixel diagonally from the others, allowing 4K spatial detail to be extracted. Notice in the picture above, however, that although the camera is labeled “4K” the lens is merely “HD.” Below is a modulation-transfer-function (MTF) graph of a hypothetical HD lens. “Modulation,” in this case, means contrast, and the transfer function shows how much gets through the lens at different levels of detail.

lens MTF

Up to HD detail fineness, the lens MTF is quite good, transferring roughly 90% of the incoming contrast to the camera. But this hypothetical curve shows that at 4K detail fineness the lens transfers only about 40% of the contrast.

The first HD lenses had limited zoom ranges, too, so it’s certainly possible that affordable long-zoom-range lenses with high MTFs will arrive someday. In the meantime, PL-mount cameras recording files serve all of the motion-image industry — except for everything else.


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So, Tell Me More About More

October 27th, 2014 | No Comments | Posted in Download, Schubin Cafe

“So, Tell Me More About More”
Presented at the SMPTE-HPA Symposium
El Capitan Theatre, Hollywood, CA

Recorded October 20, 2014.

Get schooled in the technical considerations necessary to wrap our heads around resolution, contrast, color, frame rate, screen brightness, and immersive sound. A nuts and bolts, step-by-step explanation that will serve as the foundation to better understand the topics of the day.

Direct Link (70 MB / 49:10 TRT): So, Tell Me More About More


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Artistic and Educational “Street” View

May 23rd, 2014 | No Comments | Posted in Schubin Snacks, Today's Special

James Nares's Street

Are you in or around Washington, D.C.?  Will you be there anytime soon? If it’s before June 2, get yourself to the West Building of the National Galley of Art for a peek at James Nares’s Street. It’s on the ground floor, on the west side, right next to the Kaufman furniture galleries.

Nares used a Vision Research Phantom Flex high-speed HD camera and an Angenieux Optimo lens shooting from a car moving at high speed through Manhattan streets. Then he slowed the sequences, added music, and created the art work. The results are exceptional from both artistic and techno-educational points of view.

From an artistic point of view, the piece explores conceptions of reality. Sometimes the people on the street appear to be actors in some special-effects commercial rather than real people doing real things. Lights, signs, and LCD screens flash on and off — as they actually do in real life, but too fast for us to notice. There’s a review in The New York Times here from an earlier exhibit:

From a techno-educational point of view, notice how crystal clear the material in focus is, even though the car was speeding by. Even in “4k” and “8k” ultra-high-definition demonstrations, you’ve probably never seen moving images this clear. Watch as signs move across the screen, even their fine print easily readable. If you’ve been wondering about the effects of higher spatial resolution vs. higher temporal resolution, this is must-see material.

If you can’t get to the National Gallery of Art, here’s a sample from the artist’s web site:

Watch for a showing at a museum near you.

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A Philosophical Look at NAB 2014 with Mark Schubin (video)

May 21st, 2014 | No Comments | Posted in Download, Today's Special

The 2014 NAB Show seemed to be a social-media, IP-connected, 4K event. What does that mean? Is broadcast dead? The serial-digital interface (SDI)? HDTV? The 2/3-inch camera format? Join Mark Schubin as he looks at what was shown on the exhibit floor and puts it into a larger context. No one at the NAB show introduced a new lens mount this year. Find out why Mark considers that significant as he takes you on a tour from the sublime to the — well, “interesting.”

Download the high resolution (1024×600) version of the recorded webinar at:

Watch the recorded version of the webinar:

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Live 4k Streaming (for opera, of course)


The first commercial digital sound recording was of an opera. The first live television subtitles were for opera. And, now, live 4k opera streamed over the Internet.

2014 Elemental Vienna 4K Nabucco

At 7 pm Central European Time on Wednesday, May 7, the Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna State Opera) will transmit Verdi’s opera Nabucco, with Placido Domingo in the title role. Elemental Technologies’ high-efficiency video coding (HEVC) will be used to stream the event over the Internet in 4k resolution, using MPEG-DASH, for viewing around the world. It will also be sent to a 65” Samsung UHD TV at the opera house. A Wiener Staatsoper app with built-in time shifting will allow users to view it live or at 7 pm in their local time zone.

1180538626209Wiener Staatsoper produces more than 40 live broadcasts annually and is making almost all of its 2014/2015 season productions accessible to viewers via the Internet on smart TVs and mobile devices. “Our multicreen offer, VOD [video-on-demand] services, and user-selectable two-channel live program provide new and exciting ways for fans to experience the arts with the highest levels of accessibility and artistry,” said Christopher Widauer, the opera company’s director of digital development. Elemental provides the technology for Wiener Staatsoper’s live and VOD streaming services and supports another of the opera company’s apps, which provides synchronized subtitles and even a synchronized music score. The 4k Nabucco workflow was designed by Elemental partner ETAS High Tech Hardware Systems GmbH, and the streams will be managed by Ooyalah via Samsung applications.

1881 Scientific American Ader Fig 3Opera companies have a long history of technological development. Before Avatar, Opéra de Rennes transmitted Mozart’s Don Giovanni live to movie theaters in high-definition stereoscopic 3D. Believe it or not, opera was responsible for the invention of electronic home entertainment (1880), stereo sound transmission (1881), pay cable (1885), consumer headphones (no later than 1888), newscasts (1893), sound movies (1894), stereo broadcasting (1925), stereo networking (1973), and alternative content for stadium displays (2007).  Almost no matter whom you pick as the inventor of movies (Edison, Jenkins, Le Prince), their purpose was opera (1886-88).  And an opera house was responsible for the development of the techniques of sportscasting (1886). Really!

DSC01695Opera was also present at the inception of electrical robotics (1894), broadcasting (1900), music synthesis (1906), entertainment radio (1906-7), television (1928-1934, proposed in 1882), live alternative content for cinema (1952, proposed in 1877 — before there was such a thing as cinema), widescreen movies (1952), and international satellite broadcasting (1967). In the 17th century, opera stage technology allowed complete scene changes to take place in full view of the audience in a matter of seconds; in the 21st century, opera companies are using live, interactive digital projection with edge stitching, image warping, and even real-time depth-plane selection.

Wiener Staatsoper is part of that tradition of technological innovation. Some of the first buildings lit by electricity were opera houses, and, because there were no power companies at the time, they had their own generators and shared their output. The first X-ray machine at Boston Children’s Hospital was powered from a local opera house. Before that, flame-based lighting could be dangerous, so Wiener Staatoper had its own 21-person fire department and helped pioneer fire extinguishers, so they “could assure patrons of artistic performances that Elemental-Logo-4cwere both stunning and safe,” according John Nemeth, VP of sales EMEA for Elemental. “Elemental is honored to support Vienna State Opera in its on-going technology innovation to increase access to the arts.”

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HPA 2014 – Resolution Frame-Rate and Dynamic Range [video]

March 12th, 2014 | No Comments | Posted in Download, Schubin Cafe, Today's Special


Mark Schubin’s Resolution Frame-Rate and Dynamic Range presentation from the HPA Tech Retreat, presented on February 20, 2014 (audio recorded later).

(Extended Version: Bang for the Buck: Data Rate vs. Perception in UHD Production by Mark Schubin at

Video (TRT 12:57)

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Bang for the Buck: Data Rate vs. Perception in UHD Production

November 18th, 2013 | No Comments | Posted in Download, Schubin Cafe, Today's Special


Going beyond today’s television could involve higher resolution, higher frame rate, higher dynamic range, wider color gamut, stereoscopic 3D, and immersive sound. Do all provide the same sensation of improvement? Could some preclude the use of others? Which delivers the biggest “bang for the buck,” and how do we know?

Presented during Content & Communications World, November 13, 2013, Javits Center, New York.

ARRI 4K+ Cinema AuditoriumMark Schubin adds: “I neglected to describe all of the images on slide 19. The upper right image shows that, in a cinema auditorium, detail resolutions beyond HD might be visible to everyone in the audience, even in the last row. The ARRI Alexa camera, from the same company that provided that image, however, has only 2880 pixels across — less than “3k.” That hasn’t stopped it from being used in major motion pictures, such as Skyfall (shown on set in the left bottom image) or the top-grossing movie to date in 2013, Iron Man 3.”

Video (TRT 28:03)


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Bang for the Buck

September 25th, 2013 | No Comments | Posted in Schubin Cafe

Something extraordinary happened shortly after noon local time on Saturday, September 14, at the International Broadcasting Convention (IBC) in Amsterdam (aside from the fact that the fresh herring vendors were no longer wearing traditional klederdracht). It could affect at least the short-term future of television. And a possible long-term future was also revealed at the event. IBC, however, featured not only the extraordinary but also the cute.

For many years, there seemed to be an unofficial contest to show the largest and smallest television vehicles. The “largest” title seems to have been won (and retired) at IBC 2007 by Euroscena’s MPC34, a three-truck, expanded, interconnected system including everything from a sizable production studio through edit suites, at least as wide as it was long; nothing exhibited since has come anywhere close. The “smallest” went from trucks to vans to tiny Smart cars to motorcycles to Segways. In an era in which a hand-held camera can stream directly to the world, it’s hard to claim a “smallest” title with a vehicle, so perhaps Mobile Viewpoint’s tiny scooters (click image to enlarge) should be considered among the cutest, rather than the smallest.

Not far from those Mobile Viewpoint scooters, however, was another claimant for the “cutest” title, though it was neither new nor particularly small. In the BTS outdoor exhibit was Portuguese television broadcaster RTP’s first mobile unit, built by Fernseh GmbH (roughly translated: Television, Inc.) in an eight-meter-long Mercedes-Benz truck delivered to Lisbon in 1957. It did its first live broadcast the following February 9, continued in service through 1980, and was restored in 2006 (though it still has a top speed of only 76 kilometers per hour, about 47 MPH).

About a quarter of the length of the 1957 RTP mobile unit — more than devoted to its control room — is occupied by multi-core camera-cable reels for the vehicle’s four cameras. Cabling is one area in which video technology has advanced tremendously in the last 56 years — except for one characteristic. Consider some products of another small IBC 2013 exhibitor, NuMedia.

In television’s early days, there were separate cables for video and sync, eventually becoming one in composite video. Color required multiple cables again; composite color brought it back to one. Digital video initially used a parallel interface of multiple wires, the serial digital interface (SDI) made digital video even easier to connect than analog, because a single coaxial connection could carry video, multi-channel audio, and other data. Then modern high definition arrived.

NuMedia SDI extendersSDI carried 270 million bits per second (Mbps); HD-SDI was about 1.5 billion (Gbps). HD-SDI still used just one coaxial-cable connection, but usable cable lengths, due to the higher data rates, plunged. NuMedia offered a list of usable lengths for different cables, ranging from 330 meters for fat and heavy RG11 coax down to just 90 meters for a lighter, skinnier version. NuMedia’s HDX series uses encoders and decoders to more than double usable cable lengths (and offer a reverse audio path) — at a cost of more than $1800 per encoder/decoder pair. And that provides some background for the extraordinary event.

IBC hosted a conference session called “The Great Quality Debate: Do We Really Need to Go Beyond HD?” Although going “beyond HD” has included such concepts as a wider color gamut (WCG), higher dynamic range (HDR, the range between the brightest and darkest parts of the image), higher frame rates (HFR), stereoscopic 3D (S3D), and more-immersive sound, the debate focused primarily on a literal reading of HD, meaning that going beyond it would be going to the next level of spatial detail, with twice the fineness of HD’s resolution in both the horizontal and vertical directions.

The audience in the Forum, IBC’s largest conference venue, was polled before the debate started and was roughly evenly split between feeling the need for more definition and not. Then moderator Dr. William Cooper of informitv began the debate. On the “need” side were Andy Quested, head of technology for BBC HD & UHDTV; vision scientist Dr. Sean McCarthy, fellow of the technical staff at Arris; and Dr. Giles Wilson, head of the TV compression business at Ericsson. On the “no-need” side were Rory Sutherland, vice chair of the Ogilvy Group (speaking remotely from London); journalist Raymond Snoddy; and I.

The “need” side covered the immersive nature of giant screens with higher definition and their increased sensations of reality and presence (“being there”). Perhaps surprisingly, the “no-need” side also acknowledged the eventual inevitability of ever higher definition — both sides, for example, referred to so-called “16k,” images with eight times the spatial detail of today’s 1080-line HDTV in both the horizontal and vertical directions (64 times more picture elements or pixels). But the “no-need” side added the issue of “bang for the buck.”

At the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) exhibit on the show floor, some of that bang was presented in lectures about the plan for implementing UHDTV (ultra-HDTV, encompassing WCG, HDR, HFR, immersive sound, etc.). UHDTV-1 has a spatial resolution commonly called “4k,” with four times the number of spatial pixels of 1080-line HDTV. As revealed at the HPA Tech Retreat in February, EBU testing with a 56-inch screen viewed at a typical home screen-to-eye distance of 2.7 meters showed roughly a half-grade improvement in perceived image quality for the source material used. HFRAt the EBU’s IBC lectures, the results of viewer HFR testing were also revealed. Going from 60 frames per second (fps) to 120, doubling the pixels per second, yielded a full grade quality improvement for the sequences tested. In terms of data rate, that’s four times the bang for the buck of “4k” or “4K” (the EBU emphasized that the latter is actually a designation for a temperature near absolute zero).

IBC attendees could see for themselves the perceptual effects of HFR at the EBU exhibit or, even more easily, at a BBC exhibit in IBC’s Future Zone. Even from outside that exhibit hall, the difference between the images on two small monitors, one HFR and one not, was obvious to all observers.

The EBU hasn’t yet released perceptual-quality measurements associated with HDR, but HDR involves an even lower data-rate increase: just 50% to go from eight bits to twelve. If my personal experience with HDR displays at Dolby private demonstrations at both NAB and IBC is any indication, that small data-rate increase might provide the biggest bang-for-the-buck of all (although Pinguin Ingenieurbüro’s relatively low-data-rate immersive sound system in the Future Zone was also very impressive).

At IBC’s Future Zone, the University of Warwick showed HDR capture using two cameras, with parallax correction. Behind a black curtain at its exhibit, ARRI publicly showed HDR images from just one of its Alexa cameras on side-by-side “4k” and higher-dynamic-range HD monitors. Even someone who had previously announced that “4k” monitors offer the best-looking HD pictures had to admit that the HDR HD monitor looked much sharper than the “4k.”

Fujinon XA99x8.4HDR is contrast-ratio-related, and, before cameras, processing, and displays, lenses help determine contrast ratio. Sports and concerts typically use long-zoom-range lenses, which don’t yet exist for “4k.” A Fujinon “4k” 3:1 wide-angle zoom lens costs almost twice as much as the same manufacturer’s 50:1 HD sports lens. Stick an HD lens on a “4k” camera, however, and the contrast ratio of the finest detail gets reduced — LDR instead of HDR.

Then there are those cables. As in the change from SDI to HD-SDI, as data rate increases, useful cable length decreases. Going from 1080i to “4k” at the same number of images per second is an increase of 8:1 (so-called 6G-SDI can handle “4k” up to only 30 progressive frames per second). Going from 60 fps to 120 is another 2:1 increase. Going from non-HDR to HDR is another 1.5:1 increase, a total of 24:1, not counting WCG, immersive sound, or stereoscopic 3D (a few exhibits at IBC even showed new technology for the last). Nevertheless, Denmark’s NIMB showed a tiny, three-wheel multicamera “4k” production vehicle, perhaps initiating a new contest for largest and smallest.

The lens and cable issues were raised by the “no-need” side at “The Great Quality Debate” at IBC. Perhaps some in the audience considered this conundrum: “spending” so much data rate on “4k” might actually preclude such lower-data-rate improvements as HFR and HDR. Whatever the cause, when the audience was polled after the debate, it was no longer evenly split; at an event where seemingly almost every exhibit said something about “4k,” the majority in the audience now opposed the proposition that there is a need to go beyond high definition:

Thuraya SatSleevePerhaps a secondary theme of IBC 2013 (after “4k”) will be more significant in the long term: signal distribution. IBC has long covered all forms of distribution; in 2013 offerings ranged from broadcast transmitters in just two rack units (Onetastic) to a sleeve that turns an iPhone into a satellite phone (Thuraya). In the Future Zone, Technische Universität Braunschweig offered one of the most-sensible distribution plans for putting live mass-appeal programming on mobile devices, an overlay of a tower-based broadcast over regular LTE cells.

The most radical signal-distribution plan at IBC 2013, however, was also the one most likely to be the future of the television-production business. It’s related to HD-SDI: eliminating it. HD-SDI technology is mature and works fine (up to the distance limit for the data rate and cable), but it’s unique to our industry. Meanwhile, the rest of the world is using common information technology (IT) and internet protocol (IP).

The EBU “village” was a good place to get up to speed on replacing SDI with IT, with both lectures and demonstrations, the latter, from the BBC, showing both HD and “4k.” Here are links to EBU and BBC sites on the subject:

SVS switcher control surfaceThen there was SVS Broadcast, which took information technology a step further, showing what they called an IT-based switcher. The control surface is a little unusual, but what’s behind it is more unusual. When a facility uses multiple switchers, they can share processing power. Oh, and the control surfaces demonstrated at IBC in Amsterdam were actually controlling switcher electronics in Frankfurt.

There were more wonders at IBC, from Panasonic 64×9 images to MidworldPro Panocam tiltedMidworldPro’s Panocam that uses 16 lenses to see everything and stitch it all into a single image. And then there was Clear-Com, offering respite from the relentless march of advanced technology with their new RS-700 series, an updated version of traditional, analog, wired, belt-pack intercom.



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NAB 2013 Wrap Up at the SMPTE DC chapter, May 23, 2013

June 2nd, 2013 | No Comments | Posted in Download, Today's Special

Mark Schubin’s NAB 2013 wrap up.

Presented to the SMPTE DC chapter, May 23, 2013.

Video (TRT 40:02)

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